What are DDoS Attacks :Types of DDoS Attacks & How Each Work? » Construction Reunited
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by on June 17, 2020

DDoS stands for Distributed Denial of Service.

This is a type of cyber attack that targets critical systems and destroys services or network connections, causing a denial of service to users of the targeted resource. DDoS attacks harness the processing power of multiple malware-infected computers to target a single system.

Called as the computer leading the attack, the Botmaster works in three main ways.

This is a shocking example of the main DDoS attacks that took place.

According to the Verisign Q1 2018 DDoS Trends Report, the average maximum attack size increased by 26% during the reported period. According to Neustar's related research, such attacks can present a risk of more than $ 250,000 per hour.

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Understanding the most common types of attacks is essential to protect yourself against DDoS.

Types of DDoS Attacks and How They Work

Volume attack

The most common DDoS attack overwhelms a machine's network bandwidth by flooding the machine with bogus requests for data on all open ports available to the device. As the bot floods the data on the port, the machine has to continually deal with the verification of malicious data requests, leaving no room for legitimate traffic. UDP floods and ICMP floods are two main forms of volume attacks.

UDP stands for User Datagram Protocol and refers to sending data without verifying its integrity. The UDP format is suitable for high speed data transfer, but unfortunately it is an important tool for attackers.

ICMP stands for Internet Control Message Protocol and refers to network devices that communicate with each other. Attacks that focus on ICMP are based on attacking nodes that send false error requests to their targets. The target has to handle these requests, and since a UDP attack works, it cannot respond to actual requests.

Application Layer Attack

The application layer is the top layer of the OSI network model and the layer closest to user interaction with the system. Attacks that exploit the application layer primarily target direct web traffic. Potential means include HTTP, HTTPS, DNS, or SMTP.

Application layer attacks generally use a small number of machines, and sometimes a single machine, so they are not easy to catch. Therefore, it can trick the server into treating the attack as a large amount of legitimate traffic.

Protocol Attack

Protocol attacks focus on damage to the connection table in the network area, which directly addresses the verification of connections. By sending a slow ping, a deliberately malformed ping, and a partial packet in a row, the attacking computer could overload the target's buffers and crash the system. Protocol attacks can also attack firewalls. That is why firewalls alone cannot stop denial of service attacks.


One of the most common protocol attacks is SYN flooding. It uses a 3-way link process to establish a TCP / IP connection. Typically, the client sends a SYN (synchronization) packet, receives an SYN-ACK (synchronization confirmation), and returns an ACK before establishing the connection. During the attack, the client sends only SYN packets, so the server sends an SYN-ACK and waits for the final phase to occur. This ties up the network resources.

Hackers often combine these three approaches to attack targets on multiple fronts, completely overwhelming defenses until more comprehensive and powerful countermeasures are implemented.

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